An Overview of the Languages of India

as per Census Report, 2011


Mother Tongues and Language Groups

India is a multilingual country with more than 121 languages being spoken by more than 10 thousand speakers. These 121 languages have a total of 270 distinct mother tongues as given in the table below. 17 of these mother tongues, including four of non-scheduled languages of India, have a speaker strength of more than 10 million and an additional 43 mother tongues with a speaker strength of more than a million.


SL Mother Tongue Name Total Speakers Language Group
1Assamese14816414ASSAMESE
2Bengali96177835BENGALI
3Chakma228281BENGALI
4Haijong/Hajong71792BENGALI
5Rajbangsi475861BENGALI
6Bodo/Boro1454547BODO
7Kachari15984BODO
8Mech/Mechhia11546BODO
9Dogri2596763DOGRI
10Gujarati55036204GUJARATI
11Gujrao/Gujrau15431GUJARATI
12Pattani16510GUJARATI
13Ponchi13812GUJARATI
14Saurashtra/Saurashtri247702GUJARATI
15Awadhi3850906HINDI
16Baghati/Baghati Pahari15835HINDI
17Bagheli/Baghel Khandi2679129HINDI
18Bagri Rajasthani234227HINDI
19Banjari1581271HINDI
20Bhadrawahi98806HINDI
21Bhagoria20924HINDI
22Bharmauri/Gaddi181069HINDI
23Bhojpuri50579447HINDI
24Bishnoi12079HINDI
25Brajbhasha1556314HINDI
26Bundeli/Bundel khandi5626356HINDI
27Chambeali/Chamrali125746HINDI
28Chhattisgarhi16245190HINDI
29Churahi75552HINDI
30Dhundhari1476446HINDI
31Garhwali2482089HINDI
32Gawari19062HINDI
33Gojri/Gujjari/Gujar1227901HINDI
34Handuri47803HINDI
35Hara/Harauti2944356HINDI
36Haryanvi9806519HINDI
37Hindi322230097HINDI
38Jaunpuri/Jaunsari136779HINDI
39Kangri1117342HINDI
40Khari Boli50195HINDI
41Khortha/Khotta8038735HINDI
42Kulvi196295HINDI
43Kumauni2081057HINDI
44Kurmali Thar311175HINDI
45Lamani/Lambadi3276548HINDI
46Laria89876HINDI
47Lodhi139180HINDI
48Magadhi/Magahi12706825HINDI
49Malvi5212617HINDI
50Mandeali622590HINDI
51Marwari7831749HINDI
52Mewari4212262HINDI
53Mewati856643HINDI
54Nagpuria763014HINDI
55Nimadi2309265HINDI
56Padari17279HINDI
57Pahari3253889HINDI
58Palmuha23579HINDI
59Panch Pargania244914HINDI
60Pando/Pandwani15595HINDI
61Pangwali18668HINDI
62Pawari/Powari325772HINDI
63Puran/Puran Bhasha12375HINDI
64Rajasthani25806344HINDI
65Sadan/Sadri4345677HINDI
66Sirmauri107401HINDI
67Sondwari229788HINDI
68Sugali170987HINDI
69Surgujia1738256HINDI
70Surjapuri2256228HINDI
71Badaga133550KANNADA
72Kannada43506272KANNADA
73Kuruba/Kurumba24189KANNADA
74Prakritha/Prakritha Bhasha12257KANNADA
75Kashmiri6554369KASHMIRI
76Kishtwari39748KASHMIRI
77Siraji124896KASHMIRI
78Dardi25600KASHMIRI
79Konkani2146906KONKANI
80Kudubi/Kudumbi17209KONKANI
81Malwani23617KONKANI
82Nawait13123KONKANI
83Gorboli/Goru/Gorwani50259KONKANI
84Maithili13353347MAITHILI
85Purbi Maithili11116MAITHILI
86Thati165420MAITHILI
87Tharu53575MAITHILI
88Malayalam34776533MALAYALAM
89Pania22808MALAYALAM
90Yerava26563MALAYALAM
91Manipuri1760913MANIPURI
92Are53879MARATHI
93Koli13809MARATHI
94Marathi82801140MARATHI
95Nepali2925796ODIA
96Bhatri334258ODIA
97Bhuiya/Bhuyan[Ori]32126ODIA
98Bhumijali34651ODIA
99Desia227313ODIA
100Odia34059266ODIA
101Proja (Ori)156354ODIA
102Relli12969ODIA
103Sambalpuri2630381ODIA
104Bagri1656588PUNJABI
105Bhateali23970PUNJABI
106Bilaspuri Kahluri295805PUNJABI
107Punjabi31144095PUNJABI
108Sanskrit24709SANSKRIT
109Karmali358579SANTALI
110Mahili26399SANTALI
111Santali6973345SANTALI
112Bhatia22409SINDHI
113Kachchhi1030602SINDHI
114Sindhi1679246SINDHI
115Irula/Irular Mozhi11870TAMIL
116Kaikadi25870TAMIL
117Korava10421TAMIL
118Tamil68888839TAMIL
119Yerukala/Yerukula58065TAMIL
120Telugu80912459TELUGU
121Vadari198020TELUGU
122Urdu50725762URDU
123Bhansari22806URDU
124Adi110307ADI
125Adi Gallong/Gallong29246ADI
126Adi Miniyong/Miniyong13344ADI
127Talgalo69256ADI
128Afghani/Kabuli/Pashto21433AFGHANI/KABULI/PASHTO
129Anal24301ANAL
130Angami40721ANGAMI
131Ao119549AO
132Chungli70782AO
133Mongsen69094AO
134Arabic/Arbi54871ARABIC/ARBI
135Balti13654BALTI
136Baori63028BHILI/BHILODI
137Barel991257BHILI/BHILODI
138Bhilali753466BHILI/BHILODI
139Bhili/Bhilodi3206533BHILI/BHILODI
140Chodhari110570BHILI/BHILODI
141Dhodia49097BHILI/BHILODI
142Gamti/Gavit139118BHILI/BHILODI
143Garasia76749BHILI/BHILODI
144Kokna/Kokni/Kukna416787BHILI/BHILODI
145Mawchi98486BHILI/BHILODI
146Paradhi69085BHILI/BHILODI
147Pawri311677BHILI/BHILODI
148Rathi47801BHILI/BHILODI
149Tadavi52347BHILI/BHILODI
150Varli387481BHILI/BHILODI
151Vasava187036BHILI/BHILODI
152Wagdi3393991BHILI/BHILODI
153Bhotia120583BHOTIA
154Bauti100000BHOTIA
155Bhumij10190BHUMIJ
156Bishnupriya Manipuri/Manipuri Bishnupriya74069BISHNUPURIYA
157Chakhesang19846CHAKHESANG
158Chakru/Chokri91216CHAKRU/CHOKRI
159Chang66852CHANG
160Coorgi/Kodagu16939COORGI/KODAGU
161Kodava96918COORGI/KODAGU
162Deori32376DEORI
163Dimasa133327DIMASA
164English259678ENGLISH
165Gadaba40965GADABA
166Gangte16542GANGTE
167Garo1125359GARO
168Dorli47701GONDI
169Gondi2856581GONDI
170Kalari26769GONDI
171Maria/ Muria15864GONDI
172Halabi765464HALABI
173Halam26534HALAM
174Hmar98988HMAR
175Ho1410996HO
176Lohara10422HO
177Jatapu19990JATAPU
178Juang30378JUANG
179Kabui54220KABUI
180Rongmei68706KABUI
181Karbi/Mikir528503KARBI/MIKIR
182Ahirani1636465KHANDESHI
183Dangi150674KHANDESHI
184Gujari57171KHANDESHI
185Khandeshi10670KHANDESHI
186Kharia293665KHARIA
187Khasi1037964KHASI
188Lyngngam11586KHASI
189Pnar/Synteng319324KHASI
190War51558KHASI
191Khezha36383KHEZHA
192Khiemnungan61968KHIEMNUNGAN
193Khond/Kondh111693KHOND/KONDH
194Kuvi43855KHOND/KONDH
195Kinnauri83427KINNAURI
196Kisan206100KISAN
197Koch33962KOCH
198Koda/Kora47181KODA/KORA
199Kolami128451KOLAMI
200Kom15108KOM
201Kodu32166KONDA
202Konda24987KONDA
203Konyak244477KONYAK
204Korku688053KORKU
205Muwasi35827KORKU
206Koraku16154KORWA
207Koya407423KOYA
208Kui941377KUI
209Kuki82049KUKI
210Kurukh/Oraon1976920KURUKH/ORAON
211Ladakhi14952LADAKHI
212Lahauli11162LAHAULI
213Bahawal Puri29253LAHNDA
214Hindi Multani61722LAHNDA
215Mara38671LAKHER
216Lalung33921LALUNG
217Lepcha47331LEPCHA
218Liangmei48388LIANGMEI
219Limbu38067LIMBU
220Lotha179467LOTHA
221Lushai/Mizo825900LUSHAI/MIZO
222Pahariya152814MALTO
223Kulehiya75776MALTO
224Mao97195MAO
225Paola143001MAO
226Maram 32460MARAM
227Maring25814MARING
228Miri/Mishing629954MIRI/MISHING
229Mishmi15871MISHMI
230Mogh36652MOGH
231Monpa13703MONPA
232Kol19868MONPA
233Munda464817MUNDA
234Mundari1128050MUNDARI
235Nicobarese29099NICOBARESE
236Apatani44815NISSI/DAFLA
237Nissi/Dafla289166NISSI/DAFLA
238Tagin62897NISSI/DAFLA
239Nocte29810NOCTE
240Paite79443PAITE
241Dhurwa45938PARJI
242Pawi28639PAWI
243Phom54416PHOM
244Pochury21568POCHURY
245Rabha139985RABHA
246Rai10427RAI
247Rengma65328RENGMA
248Sangtam75684SANGTAM
249Savara409481SAVARA
250Sema10802SEMA
251Sherpa16012SHERPA
252Shina32069SHINA
253Tamang20154TAMANG
254Tangkhul187263TANGKHUL
255Tutcha Tangsa10234TANGSA
256Thado227114THADO
257Tibetan83779TIBETAN
258Purkhi93500TIBETAN
259Kokbarak917900TRIPURI
260Reang58539TRIPURI
261Tripuri33138TRIPURI
262Tulu1841963TULU
263Vaiphei42748VAIPHEI
264Wancho59154WANCHO
265Chirr12300YIMCHUNGRE
266Tikhir11071YIMCHUNGRE
267Yimchungre56538YIMCHUNGRE
268Zeliang63529ZELIANG
269Zemi50923ZEMI
270Zou26545ZOU